I purchased a couple of exceptional examples of product design recently. The first was an ‘Uppababy Vista’ pushchair and carrycot and the second was a ‘Clicgear 3.5+’ golf trolley. They are similar in some ways – both are functional and attractive and both fold down to impossibly small bundles. The big difference was the price with the pushchair and carrycot costing five times the cost of the golf trolley. Obviously there is more to the pushchair but not five times more. I mean with a bit of modification you could almost push a baby around in the golf trolley. However the market knows best and both are market leaders.
‘Uppababy Vista’ pushchair and carry cot
‘Clicgear 3.5+’ golf trolley
It got me thinking again about what ‘stuff’ costs. ‘Stuff’ starts as a raw material, say clay in the case of a brick or iron ore in the case of a steel beam, and then all along the way costs are added. These include materials, labour, management, marketing and selling, operating costs, borrowing, research and development, return on capital, setting aside for future expansion and replacement etc. etc. A degree in economics is needed to make sense of the likes of fixed cost, variable cost, marginal cost, opportunity cost. The more you think about it the more complicated it becomes as it often depends on the route to market which is why in most cases it is left to the market to decide.
I am regularly asked what my designs will cost to build and I can, and do, provide an estimate on a m2 basis. A more detailed estimate can be provided by a quantity surveyor on an elemental basis or a contractor can give a ‘budget’ cost. If cost is looking like it could be a problem we can look at things like the size and complexity of the design, the method of construction, the specification level and the procurement approach. Do we use named products or generic equivalents or a performance specification? When all is said and done, competitive tendering remains the best route to determining price as the only price that ultimately matters is the market price which is the price at which a reputable contractor is prepared to sign a contract for the work.
Funchal, Madeirra photo Bengt Nyman
What better way to extend the summer than an Autumn fortnight In Madeira the ‘floating garden in the Atlantic’ which boasts a sub tropical climate, year round summer weather, stunning scenery and unique flora and fauna. The architecture is a mix of the modern and classical European styles from colonial times often featuring the characteristic black local stonework and white render. Tourism is the mainstay of the local economy with adventure holidays for the young in the mountains supplementing the traditional ‘old guard’. There appears to be plenty of construction activity – I tend to count the cranes on the skyline as a crude measure.
Baroque, twin towered facade of Our Lady of Monte Church, Madeira (1818) featuring black local stonework and white render
A positive narrative then but like so much nowadays there is a competing narrative which is the chronic lack of sustainability. Madeira’s year round population is nearly 300,000 with five times as many tourists visiting annually. Most arrive by air which we all know is not a sustainable form of travel and not likely to become one. Add to that the food and everything else that has to come in by air and we have an island whose steady development must be at risk. So for that reason I wouldn’t buy a property there or invest in development even if I could afford to. The smart money is apparently on Scotland (water and energy).
When teenage climate activist Greta Thunberg delivered a stinging rebuke to world leaders at the United Nations Climate Summit a few weeks ago over a lack of action on the climate emergency she would have had the likes of Madeira’s air miles count in mind (3,100 miles round trip from London). The charming old fashioned idea of Madeira may one day include the idea of not visiting at all.
The Great Fire of Barking 9 June 2019
It was ‘Barking mad’ to construct the balconies of the flats in the recent Barking fire of timber. Perhaps they should have built them in Dagenham instead which, as they say, is three stops past Barking.
The use of external timber cladding in high and medium rise buildings has become increasingly popular as it is fashionable, ‘eco’ and above all cheap – seemingly ignoring the obvious fact that wood catches fire easily. The more that timber is exposed the more easily fire can cross the facade of a building and leap from building to building – a lesson that was learned 350 years ago in the Great Fire of London after which brick and stone replaced timber.
Over recent years I’ve seen more and more timber used on the facades of high and medium rise buildings and thought ‘how on earth do you access that for maintenance?’ Maybe the more obvious question would be ‘how will that burn?’ In the case of the Barking flats it is suggested that they ‘received approval by the relevant authorities’. They probably did as balconies do not normally form part of an escape route and the purpose of the Building Regulations is to save life not property.
The Great Fire of London September 1666 artist unknown
In this article in the Sun on the Barking fire ‘Dad-of-two Carl, 40, said he had just ten seconds to grab his children and run. He said: “Apparently there was a flat that started a barbecue, the barbecue was on a carpet and there was a mattress on a wall. The barbecue fell over, I don’t know how, the barbecue fell on to the carpet and caught alight.”’ Sounds not dissimilar to the Great Fire of London which started in Thomas Farriner’s bakery on Pudding Lane when a spark from his oven fell onto a pile of fuel nearby.
Flat drafting in the office of Charles and Ray Eames, 1970
Universal height adjustable table by Knoll
‘Architect’s back’ – the occupational injury endured by generations of architects who bent over architectural drawing boards in the days of set squares, tee squares, technical pens and tracing paper – died away with the advent of computer aided design. Ergonomically designed computer work stations help prevent back strain by allowing architects to sit upright with the ears directly above the shoulders which in turn are over the hips. Drafting chairs have a pneumatic gas lift for height adjustment, tilt adjustment, a foot ring to promote leg circulation and a curved back for lumbar support. As well as this freestanding height-adjustable tables also play an increasingly important role in preventing back strain by giving users the choice to sit or stand throughout the day.
Unfortunately some of the newest generation of architectural start ups (and lots of other tech start ups) including that of my son Simon are not working like this at all. They are working on laptops in coffee shops, shared workspaces, clubs, lounges etc . Because the keyboard and monitor are combined in a laptop they can’t be positioned independently for typing and viewing which means incorrect neck and shoulder posture and inevitably ‘architect’s back’ which I think is beginning to afflict Simon. There is a solution which is the use of a docking station that links the laptop to another monitor and keyboard or to a stand that raises the screen to a higher level.
Strange to have come full circle. Time to go ‘back to the drawing board’ (metaphorically speaking) and rethink this one.
Temporary increases in the Permitted Development (PD) regime that allowed homeowners to build bigger single storey rear extensions without the need for planning permission which were due to expire 30 May 2019 have now been made permanent. These increases cover single storey rear extensions of up to 6m on semis or terraced homes and up to 8m on detached houses.
Edwin Booth, Hamlet, 1870. PD, or not PD, that is the question.
PD rights are a bit of a minefield as the rules are often hard to interpret. There are frequently misconceptions about PD and these are the ones that I commonly come across:
- PD is what is permitted without planning permission. It is not necessarily as much or as good a solution as what might be available if a planning application is made and approved. So PD may not be the optimal solution.
- PD rights are often hard to interpret for a specific project and if a property is subsequently sold the incoming purchaser could seek confirmation that what has been built is indeed PD. Therefore in most cases clients apply to the local council for a Lawful Development Certificate which is in some respects similar to a householder planning application. So an application to the council may be needed in any case.
- PD rights are restricted in ‘designated areas’ such as conservation areas, National Parks (such as the South Downs National Park), an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) (such as the High Weald AONB) and for listed buildings. So PD may not apply.
- Building Regulations approval is still required. So a set of design drawings will be required in any event.
Always worth talking to your local architect to avoid a missed opportunity and/or a costly mistake.
The claim by the designer of the Soviet Union’s RBMK nuclear reactors that they were ‘safe enough to be installed on Red Square’ was believed. That was until reactor 4 (RBMK type) at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine literally exploded into the night sky at 1.23am on 26 April 1986 in the world’s worst ever nuclear disaster.
Serhii Plokhy’s award winning book ‘Chernobyl’ explores the context of communism, militarism and a rush for economic growth, through new technologies such as nuclear energy, that led up to the disaster, the disaster as it unfolded and the immediate and long term aftermath. It is a tale of the catastrophic coming together of a flawed and failing political system and an inherently dangerous nuclear industry.
A Soviet army helicopter above Chernobyl reactor 4 shortly after the explosion. Sandbags were dropped in a desperate attempt to put out the fire.
Anyone involved in construction will recognise the pattern of impossibly optimistic targets, design and construction flaws, violations of rules and procedures and rank deceit and incompetence at all levels. Anyone interested in politics and history will be drawn into a tale of how after the event everyone lied to everyone else to protect their skin. The plant managers lied to local officials who lied to Ukrainian officials who lied to Soviet officials who lied to the Soviet politburo who lied to the international community about the nature and scale of the disaster and the risks involved. Earlier warnings would have saved countless lives. The numbers who have died or will die will never be known as so many deaths are not immediately attributable. There were 2 immediate deaths and a further 29 deaths within 3 months from acute radiation sickness (plant operators, firemen and helicopter pilots etc) but the United Nations estimate a further 4,000 cancer related deaths – a figure that Greenpeace puts at 90,000. The area around Chernobyl will not be safe for human habitation for 20,000 years. The half-life of plutonium-239, traces of which were found as far away as Sweden, is 24,000 years.
I remember a primary school trip to ‘Hunterston A’ nuclear power station and seeing the goldfish swimming in the cooling water in outside ponds to demonstrate its safety. I knew instinctively even then that the only science I needed to understand was Murphy’s Law. Right now reactor 3 at ‘Hunterston B’ has been shut down after the discovery of over 370 hairline cracks in the graphite bricks that make up the reactor’s core. Meanwhile the construction of the nuclear reactor at Hinkley Point C in Somerset continues despite it being unnecessary, too expensive and of an unproven design with no working example of the proposed reactor type anywhere in the world.
‘Futurology – The new home in 2050’ published by the NHBC Foundation takes a look at how we could be living 30 years from now and as such is a good starting point for anyone planning a new home – be it in an urban or rural location. The ‘drivers’ for change will be the changes in demographics, advances in technology and reduced availability of land that we see all around us. The watchwords for the new home as we head towards 2050 will be accessibility, health and comfort, technology and adaptability.
The guide anticipates that increased life expectancy will lead to multi generational living with the need for flexible and adaptable family homes with shared and family spaces, home working spaces and self contained suites of rooms. Third age, single person and ‘micro’ apartment living are all expected to increase. New homes will be ‘smarter’ with low energy use and building and communications technology. The guide is not prescriptive and describes both age appropriate homes suitable for a particular stage of life (with the inference that the occupant moves on in due course) and homes that are flexible and adaptable enough to be suitable for most, if not all, of life’s journey.
Closer than we think – gravity in reverse
The problem with this semi-scientific approach to the home as a well designed and laid out tool / machine for living in is that most people don’t see homes in this way. We might change our car as our needs and circumstances change but not our home. Our home is part of our self-definition and we don’t always act ‘rationally’ in terms of how we live and use space. Changing home could mean leaving a community of friends and family behind. It could mean leaving a much loved street or place. In many cases the family home is the single biggest repository of family wealth.
‘Futurology – The new home in 2050’ is definitely a good primer for the future but it does have the feel of those sci-fi tv shows from years ago that predicted how we were supposed to be living now – but aren’t.
Skilled craftspeople of all kinds will be needed to restore Notre Dame cathedral in Paris following the fire that destroyed the gothic oak frame and roof, the spire and most of the interiors. Master carpenters and stonemasons will be needed to get roof and the walls back together and then a raft of specialists to reinstate the interiors. Cathedral grade skills like these are in such short supply nowadays that it could determine how quickly the work proceeds. The astoundingly complex oak frame and roof, known as ‘the forest’, were held to be one of the greatest masterpieces of Middle Age design and construction.
This assumes that the intention is to faithfully restore Notre Dame. In the world of architectural conservation there are various philosophical responses to fires such as this. ‘Ruinists’ say leave the building as a ruin – a romantic ghost, ‘modernists’ say replace with something that speaks for its time, ‘replicationists’ say what was there must be restored. The ‘replicationists’ will surely prevail at Notre Dame but what does ‘replication’ mean? Does it mean an authentic reconstruction of the whole thing using the original materials and techniques even where hidden from view or does it allow the use of equivalent modern means to achieve the same effect?
Sagrada Familia aerial view
Sagrada Familia Exterior view
After the fire that destroyed parts of Windsor Castle in 1992 it was decided that, with the exception of the areas that were redesigned such as St George’s Hall, the work would use whatever modern materials and techniques were necessary to recreate the interiors that were destroyed by the fire. This is in contrast to the reconstruction of the roof of York Minister cathedral which was exactly replicated in oak after the fire in 1984.
Sagrada Familia interior view
The fate of Notre Dame makes me think of another great European cathedral – the as yet unfinished Sagrada Família in Barcelona – started in 1882 and now 70% complete. Heaven forbid but how would you ever approach an ‘authentic’ restoration of a hybrid building like this. Antoni Gaudí‘s early work was in traditional carved stonework but from 1998 whole parts of the building have been prefabricated and craned into place. Large steel reinforced precast concrete elements, modern high-strength concrete, stainless steel, engineered wood, glass and light metal elements have all been used to speed up construction, increase safety and reduce cost. As well as this 3-D computer aided design has been extensively employed. The result is spectacular but certainly one to have the philosophers scratching their heads over what is meant by ‘authentic’ restoration.
Claire in Dundee
Here is our daughter Claire visiting the Scottish Design Museum at the V&A Dundee which opened last Autumn. She is in the Charles Rennie Mackintosh designed art nouveau oak tearoom interior. It was originally designed in 1907 and located at Ingram Street in Glasgow before being salvaged in an act of great foresight prior to the demolition of the host building in 1971. Now 50 years later it has been reassembled in Dundee. Strange to think that all four of Claire’s grandparents might have visited this popular tearoom when it was in Glasgow. Whilst it’s the actual interior it’s not really the same ‘place’ as it no longer occupies the particular position in space and time that it once did. Still it’s wonderful to think that the design can be experienced again.
Mackintosh is a big draw on the cultural tourism circuit nowadays and like his reputation his built body of work is expanding not contracting. His 1901 entry into a competition set by German design magazine ‘Zeitschrift Fur Innendekoration’ for the design a ‘Haus Eines Kunstfreundes’ or ‘Art Lovers House’ was realised in Glasgow the best part of a century after it was designed and now acts as a popular gallery and exhibition space, events venue, café, artists studios and visitor attraction.
House for an Art Lover – Mackintosh drawing
House for an Art Lover – As built 1996
Then there is his best known building, the Glasgow School of Art, which was severely damaged by a second catastrophic fire in June 2018. Here the plan is to faithfully rebuild Mackintosh’s original design. This is surely the right approach because so much information exists about the building that a more or less exact reconstruction is possible. In construction, many contractors and specialist subcontractors are considered for work but only one team can actually carry it out when many could have done. In the case of the school of art a new team can now reconstruct the original design idea just as the original team did over 100 years ago. Many blogs ago, when the issue was the rebuilding of the school of art library destroyed by the first fire in 2014, I suggested that because the library was a stand-alone design fitted into a simple box-like ‘shell’ within the building, more than one could be produced. I still think this would be a viable idea and perhaps one of them could head north east to join the tearoom in Dundee.
Wealden District Council’s ‘Wealden Local Plan’ continues on its way to adoption. It has now been submitted to the Secretary of State who has duly appointed an inspector to determine whether it is ‘sound’ and legally compliant. It’s probably already out of date. The survey that underpins the assessment of Forest Row certainly appears to be. The plans states (para 25.48) ‘The survey found that Forest Row is a relatively attractive, healthy and viable centre, and is performing well against many of the health check key performance criteria. For example, vacancy levels in the centre are low, which is a positive sign of the performance of existing shops and services and the good demand for space where vacancies do occur.’
A few days ago I counted, with the local barber, ten empty, or soon to be empty, shops. Maybe they all have prospective tenants – hopefully not more coffee shops as the number of places where it is possible to purchase a coffee in the village is also in double figures. There could be a vacancy for a nail bar though I won’t be using it. Hair attended to I crossed the road to the ironmongers which is having a closing down sale to see if I could get a circular sanding disc attachment for a drill. They didn’t have it so I went to Homebase in East Grinstead who had the sandpaper discs but not the disc attachment – which is an odd way of doing business. So I came home and bought it online and it was delivered free delivery the following morning. The problem in a nutshell. The solution might take something bigger.